Version 6 (modified by ross@…, 9 years ago) (diff)


Polymorphic Components

See ExtensionDescriptionHowto for information on how to write these extension descriptions. Please add any new extensions to the list of HaskellExtensions.

Brief Explanation

Data constructor arguments may have polymorphic types (marked with forall) and contexts constraining universally quantified type variables, e.g.

newtype Swizzle = MkSwizzle (forall a. Ord a => [a] -> [a])

The constructor then has a rank-2 type:

MkSwizzle :: (forall a. Ord a => [a] -> [a]) -> Swizzle

If RankNTypes are not supported, these data constructors are subject to similar restrictions to functions with rank-2 types:

  • polymorphic arguments can only be matched by a variable or wildcard (_) pattern
  • when the costructor is used, it must be applied to the polymorphic arguments

This feature also makes it possible to create explicit dictionaries, e.g.

data MyMonad m = MkMonad {
    unit :: forall a. a -> m a,
    bind :: forall a b. m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b

The field selectors here have ordinary polymorphic types:

unit :: MyMonad m -> a -> m a
bind :: MyMonad m -> m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b



  • type inference is a simple extension of Hindley-Milner.
  • offered by GHC and Hugs for years
  • large increment in expressiveness: types become impredicative, albeit with an intervening data constructor, enabling Church encodings and similar System F tricks. Functions with rank-2 types may be trivially encoded. Functions with rank-n types may also be encoded, at the cost of packing and unpacking newtypes.
  • useful for polymorphic continuation types, like the ReadP type used in a proposed replacement for the Read class.


  • more complex denotational semantics