wiki:ForeignFunctionInterface

Version 23 (modified by chak@…, 5 years ago) (diff)

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Foreign Function Interface

Ticket: #35

Brief Explanation

The Foreign Function Interface (FFI) adds support for invoking code and accessing data structures implemented in other programming languages and vice versa. The current proposal encompasses a general mechanism for inter-language operations as well as specific support for interoperating with the C programming language.

References

Pros

  • Widely accepted and used addendum.
  • Provides an essential facility.

Cons

  • Inappropriate use can subvert all semantic guarantees provided by Haskell and can cause memory corruption and program crashes.

Integration into the report

The FFI addendum is already written and formatted in the style of the report — it should be straight forward to integrate. In addition the following changes relative to the original addendum will be applied.

Libraries

We use the hierarchical names from the standard library, instead of the names in the FFI addendum.

Moreover, the current libraries have grown somewhat since the original FFI Addendum. We include the additions listed in the following:

  • In Foreign.C.Error: throwErrnoIfRetryMayBlock, throwErrnoIfRetryMayBlock_, throwErrnoIfMinus1RetryMayBlock, throwErrnoIfMinus1RetryMayBlock_, throwErrnoIfNullRetryMayBlock, throwErrnoPath, throwErrnoPathIf, throwErrnoPathIf_, throwErrnoPathIfNull, throwErrnoPathIfMinus1, & throwErrnoPathIfMinus1_
  • In Foreign.ForeignPtr: finalizeForeignPtr
  • In Foreign.Marshal.Array: withArrayLen, withArrayLen0
  • Foreign.Marshal.Error does actually omit some routines of the FFI Addendum . I think we need to keep them in the FFI specification.

Furthermore we add:

  • Add castCharToCUChar, castCUCharToChar, castCharToCSChar, and castCSCharToChar (i.e., not only for CChar of which it is platform-dependent whether it is signed or not).
  • Add types from ISO C99 (with conversion routines):
    WordPtr uintptr_t
    WordMax uintmax_t
    IntPtr  intptr_t
    IntMax  intmax_t
    
    ptrToWordPtr :: Ptr a -> WordPtr
    wordPtrToPtr :: WordPtr -> Ptr a
    
    ptrToIntPtr :: Ptr a -> IntPtr
    intPtrToPtr :: IntPtr -> Ptr a
    

NB:

  • We do not include Foreign.Marshal.Pool in the standard as it doesn't appear to be widely used and doesn't have an efficient implementation at the moment.
  • We omit the functions that, in the standard libraries, have been moved from Foreign.Marshal.Error to System.IO.Error (namely those to construct I/O errors).

Alignment

Except for mallocBytes & allocaBytes, the original FFI addendum does not specify any constraints on alignment for allocated memory (by mallocForeignPtrBytes and others). This is clearly an oversight. We add the following statement concerning alignment at the beginning of Section 5 (which describes the library modules):

All storage allocated by functions that allocate based on a size in bytes must be sufficiently aligned for any of the basic foreign types (see Section 3.2) that fits into the newly allocated storage. All storage allocated by functions that allocated based on a specific type must be sufficiently aligned for that type. Array allocation routines need to obey the same alignment constraints for each array element.

Transparent marshalling of newtypes

The FFI addendum defines in Section 3.2 that The argument types ati produced by fatype must be marshallable foreign types; that is, each ati is either (1) a basic foreign type or (2) a type synonym or renamed datatype of a marshallable foreign type. We will improve on the second part of this statement as follows:

  • As the transparent marshalling of newtypes (aka renamed datatypes) is a fairly significant features, we will dedicate a separate (sub)subsection to it.
  • In contrast to the FFI addendum (and it's implementation in GHC), we require that a newtype in a foreign signature is not abstract. Only if its constructor is visible, can the newtype be transparently marshalled. (After all, marshalling makes only sense if we know the type of the value in foreign land.) This implies that we will export the newtypes in the modules Foreign.C.Types and
  • Clarify the connection between marshallable foreign types and the various flavours of foreign signatures discussed in Section 4.1.3. (E.g., in case of a foreign import "dynamic" the whole signature —grammar nonterminal ftype— doesn't need to be marshallable, only portions of it.)
  • We allow GHC's newtype wrapping of the IO monad.
  • We add one or two examples.

Concurrency

Multi-threading support is implementation-specific.


Considerations for the future