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# The Problem

The type level numbers of kind `Nat`

have no structure,
which limits their use in programs that need to overload
values based on a natural number, or use programmer-defined
type functions. Consider, for example, a class with a
parameter of kind `Nat`

:

class C (n :: Nat) where someMethod :: ...

To define instances of this class, we need to either select a set of concrete numbers like this:

instance C 0 where ... instance C 1 where ...

Or, alternatively, we could provide a completely polymorphic instance:

instance C a where ...

Usually, neither of these is good enough: the first one is too restrictive as we have to enumerate all the instances that will ever be used explicitly, while the second one is too general and does not give us any static information about the type that we are using (i.e., we could define the method without using a class).

The same sort of thing happens if we try to use numbers of kind `Nat`

as the parametr
to a type function---we often can't define the instances that we need.

# The Solution

We can solve this problem by providing an additional representation of type-level natural numbers,
one that has explicit structure. We define another kind, `Nat1`

, which represents natural numbers
is the traditional unary representation (here we are using GHC's `DataKinds`

extension):

data Nat1 = Zero | Succ Nat1

This kinds makes it easy to define class instances or type-functions using natural numbers. For examples, here is a function that selects a type from a list of types:

type family Get (n :: Nat1) (xs :: [*]) :: * type instance Get Zero (x `: xs) = x type instance Get (Succ n) (x `: xs) = Get n xs

type family FromNat1 (n :: Nat1) :: Nat type instance FromNat1 Zero = 0 type instance FromNat1 (Succ n) = 1 + FromNat1 n

forall a b. (FromNat1 a ~ FromNat1 b) => (a ~ b) forall a b. exists c. (1 <= FromNat1 a) => (a ~ Succ b)