Version 28 (modified by chak, 10 years ago) (diff)


Type Functions: Type Checking

Kind checking indexed type families

The workhorse of kind checking type and class declarations is TcTyClDecls.kcTyClDecls, which is invoked by TcTyClDecls.tcTyClDecls once per binding group. It handles type synonyms different from algebraic data type declarations and classes, as synonyms have a richer kind structure (making kind checking harder), but cannot be recursive (which makes kind checking easier). We handle kind signatures (of both type functions and indexed data types) in the same way as algebraic data type declarations. More precisely, kind signatures participate in the construction of the initial kind environment (as performed by getInitialKind).

In contrast, instances of indexed types are not processed by TcTyClDecls.tcTyClDecls, but by TcInstDcls.tcInstDecls1, which handles the heads of class instance declarations. However, the later invokes TcTyClDecls.tcIdxTyInstDecl (both directly and indirectly via IcInstDcls.tcLocalInstDecl1, the later for associated types). The function tcIdxTyInstDecl shares a lot of code with the TcTyClDecls.kcTyClDecls and TcTyClDecls.tcTyClDecl.

Type checking indexed type families

Type checking in the presence of only indexed data and newtypes is much simpler than in the presence of type functions as type equality remains purely syntactic (i.e., we do not need to change the unification procedure). However, we need to check that the alternatives of a case expression inspecting an indexed data type contains only constructors of one member of the family. (To relax this restriction, we would need a story for compiling open data types.)

However, this difference in complexity applies only to the type checking of expression whose types involve indexed data types and type functions, respectively. The type checking of the declaration forms is not that different; in fact, indexed data type declarations require more effort as they introduce data type constructors, which need to behandled as well. However, a lot of machinery can be re-used from vanilla algebraic data types.

Type checking signatures and instances of indexed types

Kind signatures are handled by TcTyClsDecls.tcTyClsDecl together with all other type and class declarations. Within class declarations, we invoke the functions recursively to process associated types.

Instances of indexed types are type checked by TcTyClDecls.tcIdxTyInstDecl; i.e., the same functions that performs their kind checking. Kind checking and type checking of instances of indexed types can be combined, as we don't need to worry as much about recursive dependencies as we have to for standard type declarations. In particular, the kinds of indexed types are declared by their signature and we don't have to compute any recursiveness information, as we never know whether we reached a fixed point for open types. (Hence, we conservatively assume indexed types to be always Recursive. This is safe as they are implicit loop breakers due to to implying coercions.)

Core representation of signatures of indexed families

The function TcTyClsDecls.tcTyClsDecls produces TypeRep.TyThings from type and class declarations. The TyThings produced from the new declaration forms are the following:

type family
Type synonym families are represented by the standard TyCon variant for synonyms, namely SynTyCon. They are distinguished from ordinary type synonyms by the value of the field synTcRhs, which is now of a new data type SynTyConRhs, which has a variant OpenSynTyCon resKind to represent families.
data family and newtype family
Data and newtype families are represented by the TyCon variant AlgTyCon, as are their non-indexed counter parts, with the difference that the field algTcRhs has the one of the newly introduced values OpenDataTyCon or OpenNewTyCon.

Synonym type constructors: SynTyCon

To represent type families (which do not have a fixed right hand side), the type of synTcRhs changed from Type to SynTyConRhs with

data SynTyConRhs = OpenSynTyCon Kind    -- *result* kind
                 | SynonymTyCon Type    -- rhs of ordinary synonym

Consequently, all functions that dependent on this field need to be extended. In particular, TcType.isTauTyCon regards applications of type family constructors as tau types, which is why we need to require that the right hand side of each type instance declaration is also a tau type. As a result, BuildTyCls.buildSynTyCon's last argument now also takes a value of type SynTyConRhs.

Associated types

Classes are represented by Class.Class, which we extend by a new field classATs of type [TyCon]. The Class structures including embedded TyCons for associated types are constructed at the end of declaration type checking by TcTyClsDecls.tcTyClDecl1 by way of BuildTyCl.buildClass.

An additional complication is that the associated types of a class need already be available when type checking the super class context and the method signatures of the same class, or other things in the same type checking knot. Hence, we need to make them available in the temporary environment constructed in the knot tied by TcTyClsDecls.tcTyAndClassDecls. Special care is required as this knot tying relies on the property that the list of declarations, alg_at_decls, and the list of TyThings produced by type checking the declarations, rec_alg_tyclss, match up (for zipping them together within mkGlobalThings). We guarantee this by always entering the associated types of a class right after that class in the declaration list.


The GHC API has a new predicate isOpenTyCon with the understanding that it is illegal to invoke synTyConDefn, synTyConRhs, and tyConDataCons on type constructors that fulfil isOpenTyCon.

Core representation of instances of indexed types

Representation of data instances

There are three (inter-linked) aspects to the representation of data/newtype instances: (1) the representation of the TyCon generated from an instance, (2) the representation of the DataCons for the variants of the instance, and the (3) equality axiom connecting the indexed family type with the representation of Item (1).

The TyCon of an instance

When building the TyCon for the representation type of a data instance, we need to derive a new (internal) name for that representation TyCon from the family name. This is done by BuildTyCl.buildAlgTyCon, which gets an additional argument mb_family :: Maybe TyCon that gives the family type constructor if we are building a TyCon for an instance. In that case, buildAlgTyCon generates a new name with the help of newImplicitBinder and fills the new field algTcParent with type

data AlgTyConParent = NoParentTyCon
                    | ClassTyCon    Class
                    | FamilyTyCon   TyCon     -- family tycon
                                    [Type]    -- instance types
                                    TyCon     -- representation coercion

which is a generalisation of the old field algTcClass of the internal representation for datatypes, TyCon.AlgTyCon. In contrast to the old algTcClass field, the new field also appears in IfaceSyn.IfaceDecl. However, it does so as Maybe (IfaceTyCon, [IfaceType]) as we still do not want to represent class parent information in interfaces and we only record the family tycon and instance types in interfaces, not the coercion. (The latter is implicitly reconstructed upon loading an interface.)

NB: The type argument variables of the representation tycon are the free variables of the instance types; i.e., the representation data type is an ordinary data type, it is neither indexed nor open. The only give away of its special purpose is the value in algTcParent.

The DataCons of the variants of an instance

DataCons of data instances differ from ordinary DataCons by a value of the form Just typats :: Maybe [Type] in the new field dcInstTys. It gives the instance patterns at which the data constructor has been declared; e.g., given the declaration

data instance Map (a, b) v = MapPair (Map a (Map b v))

the instance types are [(a, b), v]. Whenever the field dcInstTys of a DataCon is not Nothing, the field algTcParent of its TyCon must be of the form FamilyTyCon famTyCon, where famTyCon is the TyCon of the data family to which the instance belongs. The exact same information goes into the interface representation IfaceSyn.IfaceConDecl with the new field ifConInstTys.

The coercion identifying family instance and representation type

As each data instance is represented by its own TyCon, we need to be able to move between the type of the family instance and that of the representation. We do so by an adaptation of the same method used to implement newtypes with coercions (c.f., IntermediateTypes). Newtypes store the coercion moving between representation and abstract type in the field nt_co of the NewTyCon variant of TyCon.AlgTyConRhs, whereas representation types for indexed data types use algTcParent (see above). Newtype coercions are constructed by Coercion.mkNewTypeCoercion, whereas representation types for indexed data types use a similar function Coercion.mkDataInstCoercion, which is invoked by BuildTyCl.buildAlgTyCon iff it is passed family and instance type information.

Representation of equality axioms

Type functions have a number of properties in common with class instances; in particular, they require a machinery for matching type patterns against types, as instance heads do during context simplification. Hence, we probably want some structure similar to InstEnv.Instance for type functions - for instances this is maintained in the field iSpec of TcEnv.InstInfo (for type functions we don't need anything like iBinds as they are pure type-level entities). If possible, it would be ideal if we can reuse (or generalise) some of the matching machinery for instance heads.

The essentials of a module after type checking are in HscTypes.ModGuts; in particular, we have two fields mg_insts :: [Instance] and mg_binds :: [CoreRule] containing all instance heads and all rewrite rules respectively. Similarly, we now want something like mg_tyequa :: [TyEqua] to represent all type equations.

Refined idea: Instead of duplicating the InstInfo/Instance infrastructure for instances of indexed types, we could just add a second variant to InstInfo. This has the advantage that functions, such as tcInstDecls1, still only have to return a list of InstInfo and not two different lists.