Version 26 (modified by chak, 9 years ago) (diff)

new formation rules

Type Functions and Associated Types in GHC - The Master Plan

This page serves as a collection of notes concerning the implementation of type functions and associated types, especially about the implications for type checking, interface files, and FC intermediate code generation.


New features:

  • Open type-indexed data types and type functions
  • Associated data types and type synonyms in classes, which are type-indexed data types and type functions associated with a class - i.e., associated types are syntactic sugar for type-indexed types and type functions.

Revised features

  • We may want to re-implement functional dependencies using associated type synonyms.

We keep track of the current implementation status.

Specification and Restrictions

Refinement of the specification in the Beyond Associated Types paper. (I'll actually link this paper here once it is a bit more coherent.)

  • Kind signatures of indexed data types have the form
    data T a1 .. an :: <kind>
    and introduce a data type whose first n argument are indexes. The <kind> can specify additional parametric parameters. Index variables can have a kind annotation. Indexed newtypes have the same form, except for the keyword.
  • Kind signatures of type functions have the form
    type [iso] T a1 .. an :: <kind>
    and introduce an n-ary type functions, which may be of higher-kind. Again, the type variables can have kind signatures. The modifier iso is optional.
  • Applications of indexed types need to supply all indexes; i.e., partial application to indexes is not admitted. (Arguments beyond the indexes can be partially supplied as usual.)
  • Instances of indexed data types and newtypes have the same form as vanilla data types and newtypes, but can have non-variable type indexes in index positions. Type indexes can include applications of indexed data types and newtypes, but no type functions.
  • Type equations of type functions have the same form as vanilla type synonyms, but can have non-variable type indexes in index positions. Type indexes can include applications of indexed data types and newtypes, but no type functions.
  • Instances of indexed data types and new types as well as type equations are only valid if a matching kind signature is in scope.
  • The degenerate case of a data type/newtype declaration or type equation where all type arguments are variables is valid without a kind signature and coincides with the data types and type synonyms of vanilla Haskell. In fact, for the moment, we do not allow the degenerate case to have a kind signature. The latter constraint could be dropped if it proves to be inconvenient. (Rationale: Multiple type equations are useless when one is degenerate - as the whole system needs to be confluent and we don't have sequential matching on type equations. So, we get backwards compatibility for free.)
  • All type indexes of an associated indexed type or type function need to be class parameters.


  • We currently don't allow associated GADTs. I cannot see any fundamental problem in supporting them, but I want to keep it simple for the moment. (When allowing this, a constructor signature in an associated GADT can of course only refine the instantiation of the type arguments specific to the instance in which the constructor is defined.)

How It Works

Syntax of type functions

Type function (kind) signatures are represented by the new declaration form TyFunction (of HsDecls.TyClDecl). Syntactically, we recognise kind signatures by either not having an RHS at all (in which the result kind implicitly is *) or having a result kind separated from the head by ::. We require that every type equation has a kind signature in scope. However, the degenerate case of a type equation where all type arguments are variables is valid without a kind signature (in fact, it may not have any) and coincides with the type synonyms of vanilla Haskell.

Representation of indexed types

Type function signatures

HsDecls.TyClDecl has a new variant TyFunction to represent signatures of type functions. These consist of the name, type parameters, an iso flag, and optionally an explicit result kind. The type parameters can have kind signatures as usual.

Type function equations and associated data types

To represent type functions and associated data types, we need to generalise data type declarations TyData and type synonym declarations TySynonym to allow type patterns instead of just type variables as parameters. We do so by way of the field tcdPats of type Maybe [LHsType name], used as follows:

  • If it is Nothing, we have a vanilla data type declaration or type synonym declaration and tcdVars contains the type parameters of the type constructor.
  • If it is Just pats, we have the definition of an associated data type or a type function equations (toplevel or nested in an instance declarations). Then, 'pats' are type patterns for the type-indexes of the type constructor and tcdVars are the variables in those patterns. Hence, the arity of the type constructor is length tcdPats and not length tcdVars.

In both cases (and as before type functions), tcdVars collects all variables we need to quantify over.

Parsing and AST construction

The LALR parser allows arbitrary types as left-hand sides in data and type declarations. The parsed type is, then, passed to RdHsSyn.checkTyClHdr for closer analysis (possibly via RdHsSyn.checkSynHdr). It decomposes the type and, among other things, yields the type arguments in their original form plus all type variables they contain. Subsequently, RdrHsSyn.checkTyVars is used to either enforce that all type arguments are variables (second argument is False) or to simply check whether the type arguments are variables (second argument True). If in enforcing mode, checkTyVars will raise an error if it encounters a non-variable (e.g., required for class declarations). If in checking mode, it yields the value placed in the tcdPats field described above; i.e., returns Nothing instead of the type arguments if these arguments are all only variables.

NB: Some well-formedness checks are left for the renamer to do. For example, we don't enforce at this point that toplevel data declarations use variable-only heads (as this requires context information not available during parsing).

Representation of associated types

We add type declarations to class declarations and instance declarations by a new field (of type [LTyClDecl]) to both TyClDecl.ClassDecl (known by the field name tcdATs) and TyClDecl.InstDecl. For classes, this new field contains values constructed from TyData, TyFunction, and TySynonym, whereas for instances, we only have TyData and TySynonym. This is due to (a) TyData representing both signatures and definitions of associated data types (whereas the two are split into TyFunction and TySynonym for associated synonyms) and (b) associated synonyms having default definitions, which associated data types do not possess.


GHC is organised such that class and type declarations are processed (during renaming and type checking) before any instance declarations are considered. In the presence of associated types, instance declarations may contain type definitions. In particular, the data constructors introduced by associated data declarations need to be brought into scope before we can rename any expressions.

Open Point: When exactly do we want to lift associated data declarations out of instances? On one hand, general GHC design priciples discourages moving any code around before type checking has been completed. On the other hand, by lifting data declarations out before type checking, we have to worry less about phasing. (NB: Associated type signatures in class declarations are less of an issue as classes are very much treated like type declarations anyway - being in TyClDecl and all - and so are usually around when we need to get at their embedded types.)

Renaming and extraction of associated data types

During renaming, we enter the names of all data constructors that an associated data type defines into the global RdrName environment by extending the function RnNames.getLocalDeclBinders such that it traverses instance declarations, too. We are careful not to add the data type constructor multiple times by ignoring them in instance declarations. The global RdrName environment only ever contains the type constructor introduced in the class declaration (i.e, the RdrName of an associated data type maps to the Name of the AT declaration in the class).

Revise from here!

Remaining problem: The function getLocalDeclBinders must still supply the parent Name to the name generation for the data constructors. That parent name should be the one produced for the associated data declaration in the corresponding class declaration, which is hard to get hold of at this moment. So, we supply the Name of the data type constructor instead. That should probably be replaced by the class name in a later phase.

Now, we can extract the associated data type declarations out of instances in RnSource.rnSrcDecl, which is only called by RnSource.rnSrcDecls. As part of the extraction process, we also call RnSource.rnTyClDecl on each AT declaration to obtain the renamed form of these declarations. We add these renamed forms to the type and class declarations (i.e., hs_tyclds) of the currently processed binding group, but also keep a copy in the instance declarations, were they are needed during type checking to perform some well-formedness checks (e.g., that each AT of a class receives a definition). NB: Lifted associated type declarations inherit the context of the instance head. However, the variables of the data declaration are renamed independently of those of the instance head (which implies that the inherited copy of the instance context is renamed again as part of the data declaration).

During renaming, AT declarations are checked for conformance of the type parameters with those of the class. AT declarations inherit kind signatures from the corresponding class parameters (if any of these already have kind signatures, we raise an error) - in fact, we inherit the Names of the class parameters. Moreover, associated data declarations in classes are checked for being empty (i.e., no constructors and no context).

Type checking associated data types

Type checking in the presence of only associated data types is much simpler than in the presence of associated type synonyms (or general type functions) as type equality remains purely syntactic (i.e., we do not need to change the unification procedure). However, we need to check that the alternatives of a case expression inspecting an associated data type contains only constructors defined within the same instances. (To relax this restriction, we would need a story for compiling open data types.)

Class declarations:

  • As part of the knot typing exercises in TcTyClsDecls.tcTyAndClassDecls, we extract all AT declarations from classes and add them to the list of class and data type declarations to be processed. This ensures that AT declarations participate in kind checking and that they are entered into the global type-checker environment.
  • We do not update the data declarations within class declarations (field tcdATs within ClassDecl), as the Class.Class structure produced by the type checker only contains the Ids of a classes associated types.
  • We check that we have -fglasgow-exts.

Possible Extensions

  • Our type-indexed data types are open. However, we currently don't allow case expressions mixing constructors from different indexes. We could do that if we had a story for open function definitions outside of classes.