Version 2 (modified by simonpj, 8 years ago) (diff)

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# Ambiguity

The question of ambiguity in Haskell is a tricky one. This wiki page is a summary of thoughts and definitions, in the hope of gaining clarity. I'm using a wiki because it's easy to edit, and many people can contribute, even though you can't typeset nice rules.

[Started Jan 2010.] Please edit to improve.

## Terminology

A type system is usually specified by

• A specification, in the form of some declarative typing rules. These rules often involve "guessing types". Here is a typical example, for variables:
  (f : forall a1,..,an. C => tau) \in G
theta = [t1/a1, ..., tn/an]        -- Substitution, guessing ti
Q |= theta( C )
------------------------- (VAR)
Q, G |- f :: theta(tau)

The preconditions say that f is in the environment G with a suitable polymorphic type. We "guess" types t1..tn, and use them to instantiate f's polymorphic type variables a1..an, via a substitution theta. Under this substitution f's instantiated constraints theta(C) must be deducible (using |=) from the ambient constraints Q.

The point is that we "guess" the ai.

• An inference algorithm, often also presented using similar-looking rules, but in a form that can be read as an algorithm with no "guessing". Typically
• The "guessing" is replaced by generating fresh unification variables.

## Coherence

Suppose we have (I conflate classes Read and Show into one class Text for brevity):

class Text a where
show :: a -> String

x :: String


The trouble is that there is a constraint (Text t), where t is a type variable that is otherwise unconstrained. Moreover, the type that we choose for t affects the semantics of the program. For example, if we chose t = Int then we might get x = "3", but if we choose t = Float we might get x = "3.7". This is bad: we want our type system to be coherent in the sense that every well-typed program has but a single value.

In practice, the Haskell Report, and every Haskell implementation, rejects such a program saying something like

Cannot deduce (Text t) from ()


In algorithmic terms this is very natural: we indeed have a constraint (Text t) for some unification variable t, and no way to solve it, except by searching for possible instantiations of t. So we simply refrain from trying such a search.

But in terms of the type system specification it is harder. Usually a

Problem 1: how can w