Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracStandalone


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Timestamp:
Jul 6, 2013 6:47:50 PM (2 years ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracStandalone

    v2 v3  
    11= Tracd =
    22
    3 Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server. In most cases it's easier to setup and runs faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI script].
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
    45
    56== Pros ==
    67
    78 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
    8  * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]).
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
    910 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
    10   * Options for tracd: `-r, --auto-reload`
    1111
    1212== Cons ==
    1313
    14  * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache HTTPD.
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
    1515 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
    1616   or [http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
     
    4343== Installing as a Windows Service ==
    4444
     45=== Option 1 ===
    4546To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
    4647{{{
     
    5960The spacing here is important.
    6061
     62{{{#!div
     63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
     64`HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters`
     65
     66Three (string) parameters are provided:
     67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
     68||Application ||python.exe ||
     69||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd-script.py -p 8080 ... ||
     70
     71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
     72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
     73}}}
     74
     75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
     76{{{
     77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
     78
     79net start tracd
     80}}}
     81
     82=== Option 2 ===
     83
     84Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
     85
     86=== Option 3 ===
     87
     88also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     89{{{
     90$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     91$ net start tracd
     92}}}
     93
    6194== Using Authentication ==
    6295
    63 Using tracd with Apache .htpasswd files:
    64 
    65 To create a .htpasswd file using htpasswd:
    66 
     96Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
     97
     98The general format for using authentication is:
     99{{{
     100 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
     101}}}
     102where:
     103 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
     104   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
     105   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
     106 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
     107 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
     108 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
     109 * '''project_path''': path of the project
     110
     111 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
     112
     113Examples:
     114
     115{{{
     116 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     117   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1
     118}}}
     119
     120Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     121{{{
     122 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     123   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
     124   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
     125   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     126}}}
     127
     128Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
     129{{{
     130 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     131   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
     132   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     133}}}
     134
     135=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file ===
     136This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
     137
     138  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
     139  decode the htpasswd format.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there
     140  is no such package for Python 2.6.
     141
     142To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
    67143{{{
    68144 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
     
    72148 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
    73149}}}
    74 then for starting the tracd (on windows skip the "=" after --basic-auth):
    75 {{{
    76  $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth=environmentname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,/fullpath/environmentname /fullpath/environmentname
    77 }}}
    78 
    79 Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. The default is to use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the examples below. (You must still specify a dialogic "realm", which can be an empty string by trailing the BASICAUTH with a comma.)
    80 
    81   ''Support for Basic authentication was added in version 0.9.''
    82 
    83 The general format for using authentication is (on windows skip the "=" after --auth):
    84 
    85 {{{
    86  $ tracd -p port --auth=base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm project_path
    87 }}}
    88 
    89 where:
    90 
    91  * '''base_project_dir''' is the base directory of the project; note: this doesn't refer to the project name, and it is case-sensitive even for windows environments
    92  * '''password_file_path''' path of the password file
    93  * '''realm''' realm
    94  * '''project_path''' path of the project
    95 
    96 Example (on windows skip the "=" after --auth):
    97 
    98 {{{
    99  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    100    --auth=project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com /path/to/project1
    101 }}}
    102 Of course, the digest file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
    103 {{{
    104  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    105    --auth=project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
    106    --auth=project2,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
    107    /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    108 }}}
    109 
    110 Another way to share the digest file is to specify "*"
    111 for the project name:
    112 {{{
    113  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    114    --auth="*",/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
    115    /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    116 }}}
    117 If using the `-s` parameter for serving a Trac environment from the root of a domain, one must use `*` for the project name
    118 
    119 == How to set up an htdigest password file ==
     150
     151Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
     152{{{
     153 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname
     154}}}
     155
     156For example:
     157{{{
     158 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv
     159}}}
     160''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
     161
     162=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file ===
    120163
    121164If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
     
    123166Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
    124167
    125 == Generating Passwords Without Apache ==
    126 
    127 If you don't have Apache available, you can use this simple Python script to generate your passwords:
     168=== Generating Passwords Without Apache ===
     169
     170Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://www.4webhelp.net/us/password.php online HTTP Password generator].  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system.
     171
     172You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file:
    128173
    129174{{{
     
    159204}}}
    160205
    161 Note: If you use the above script you must use the --auth option to tracd, not --basic-auth, and you must set the realm in the --auth value to 'trac' (without the quotes). Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):
     206Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the `--auth` argument to '''`trac`'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):
    162207
    163208{{{
     
    166211}}}
    167212
    168 Note: If you would like to use --basic-auth you need to use htpasswd tool from apache server to generate .htpasswd file. The remaining part is similar but make sure to use empty realm (i.e. coma after path). When using on Windows make sure to use -m option for it (did not tested it on *nix, so not sure if that is the case there).  If you do not have Apache, [trac:source:/tags/trac-0.11b2/contrib/htpasswd.py htpasswd.py] may help.  (Note that it requires a `crypt` or `fcrypt` module; see the source comments for details.)
    169 
    170 It is possible to use md5sum utility to generate digest-password file using such method:
     213==== Using `md5sum`
     214It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
    171215{{{
    172216 $ printf "${user}:trac:${password}" | md5sum - >>user.htdigest
     
    174218and manually delete " -" from the end and add "${user}:trac:" to the start of line from 'to-file'.
    175219
     220== Reference ==
     221
     222Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
     223{{{
     224Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
     225
     226Options:
     227  --version             show program's version number and exit
     228  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
     229  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
     230                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
     231  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
     232                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
     233  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
     234  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
     235                        the host name or IP address to bind to
     236  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp
     237  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
     238  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version (default)
     239  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.0
     240  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
     241                        parent directory of the project environments
     242  --base-path=BASE_PATH
     243                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
     244  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
     245  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
     246}}}
     247
    176248== Tips ==
    177249
    178250=== Serving static content ===
    179251
    180 If `tracd` is the only webserver used for the project,
     252If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
    181253it can also be used to distribute static content
    182254(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
     
    187259Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
    188260the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
    189 which in turn can be written using the relative link syntax
    190 in the Wiki: `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]`
    191 
    192 Since 0.10, Trac supports a new `htdocs:` TracLinks
    193 syntax for the above. With this, the example link above can be written simply
    194 `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz`.
    195 
    196 === Using apache rewrite rules ===
    197 In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind apache, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
     261which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
     262
     263 ''Support for `htdocs:` TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10''
     264
     265=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     266
     267In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
     268
     269In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
     270
     271If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
     272
     273See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
     274
     275=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     276It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using {{{--basic-auth}}}. There is some discussion about this in #9206.
     277
     278Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     279
     280First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     281
     282{{{
     283<Location /project/proxified>
     284        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com
     285        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     286        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     287        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     288        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     289</Location>
     290}}}
     291
     292Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     293{{{
     294#!python
     295from trac.core import *
     296from trac.config import BoolOption
     297from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     298
     299class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     300
     301    implements(IAuthenticator)
     302
     303    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     304               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     305                (''since ??.??').""")
     306
     307    def authenticate(self, req):
     308        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     309            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     310        return None
     311
     312}}}
     313
     314Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     315{{{
     316...
     317[trac]
     318...
     319obey_remote_user_header = true
     320...
     321}}}
     322
     323Run tracd:
     324{{{
     325tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     326}}}
    198327
    199328=== Serving a different base path than / ===
     
    204333
    205334----
    206 See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone?version=13#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]
     335See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]