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# Implementing primitive Bool#

This page gathers the notes about implementing primitive logical operations and thus resolving ticket #6135.

## The problem

Consider following fragment of code:

case (x <# 0#) || (x >=# width) || (y <# 0#) || (y >=# height) of True -> E1 False -> E2

This kind of code is common in image processing (and array programming in general) where one needs to check whether the `(x,y)`

coordinates are within the image. Primitive comparison operators `<#`

and `>=#`

have type `Int# -> Int# -> Bool`

. Logical OR operator `(||)`

is defined as:

(||) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool True || _ = True False || x = x

in GHC.Classes (ghc-prim library) which is equivalent of:

(||) x y = case x of True -> True False -> y

During the compilation process (assuming the optimizations are turned on) the definition of `(||)`

gets inlined and then case-of-case transform is performed successively. This results in following Core (cleaned up for clarity):

case <# x 0 of _ { False -> case >=# x width of _ { False -> case <# y 0 of _ { False -> case >=# y height of _ { False -> E2 True -> E1 }; True -> E1 }; True -> E1 }; True -> E1 };

and in following assembler code:

.Lc1rf: testq %r14,%r14 jl .Lc1rk cmpq %rdi,%r14 jge .Lc1rp testq %rsi,%rsi jl .Lc1ru cmpq %r8,%rsi jge .Lc1rz movl $Main_g2_closure+1,%ebx jmp *0(%rbp) .Lc1rk: movl $Main_g1_closure+1,%ebx jmp *0(%rbp) .Lc1rp: movl $Main_g1_closure+1,%ebx jmp *0(%rbp) .Lc1ru: movl $Main_g1_closure+1,%ebx jmp *0(%rbp) .Lc1rz: movl $Main_g1_closure+1,%ebx jmp *0(%rbp)

There are five possible branches to take, although four of them have the same result. This is caused by code duplication introduced by case-of-case transform (see this blog post for a step by step derivation). According to Ben Lippmeier, who submitted the original bug report, mis-predicted branches are bad in object code because they stall the pipeline.

## Workarounds

It is possible to work around the issue of code duplication by using GHC primops `tagToEnum#`

and `dataToTag#`

. These allow to distinguish between `True`

and `False`

by means of accessing the tag of a data type constructor. This means that `dataToTag#`

can convert `True`

to `1#`

and `False`

to `0#`

, while `tagToEnum#`

does the opposite (see paper Faster Laziness Using Dynamic Pointer Tagging for more details):

ghci> import GHC.Exts ghci> import GHC.Prim ghci> :set -XMagicHash ghci> I# (dataToTag# True) 1 ghci> I# (dataToTag# False) 0 ghci> (tagToEnum# 0#) :: Bool False ghci> (tagToEnum# 1#) :: Bool True ghci>

Having the possibility of converting `Bool`

to an unboxed `Int#`

allows us to compute results of logical expression by means of logical bitwise operations. The result can be converted back to a `Bool`

so this is transparent on the Haskell source level, except for the fact that defined logical binary operators will be strict in both their arguments.

**NOTE: Validity of this solution is based on assumption that True will always have a tag of 1#, while False will have a tag of 0#. Changing this invariant in the future would make these primitive logical operators invalid.**

### First workaround

First workaround assumes converting each result of comparison into an unboxed `Int`

and replacing `||`

with `+#`

:

case (dataToTag# (x <# 0#)) +# (dataToTag# (x >=# width)) +# (dataToTag# (y <# 0#)) +# (dataToTag# (y >=# height)) of 0# -> E2 -- note that branch order is reversed _ -> E1

This compiles to:

case +# (+# (+# (dataToTag# (<# x 0)) (dataToTag# (>=# x width))) (dataToTag# (<# y 0))) (dataToTag# (>=# y height)) of _ { __DEFAULT -> E1; 0 -> E2 }

Similarly we can convert logical && into multiplication.

### Second workaround

The above workaround is a bit clumsy: `dataToTag#`

s make the code verbose and it may not be very obvious what the code is doing. Hence the second workaround, that defines an alternative logical `or`

operator:

(||#) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool (||#) x y = let xW = int2Word# (dataToTag# x) yW = int2Word# (dataToTag# y) zI = word2Int# (yW `or#` xW) in tagToEnum# zI

This operator is defined in terms of primops `dataToTag#`

, `tagToEnum#`

and a bitwise or primop `or#`

. Since the last one operates only on `Word`

s we need to use `int2Word#`

and `word2Int#`

for conversion between these data types. Luckily, GHC does a good job of removing unnecessary conversions between data types. This means that:

case (x <# 0#) ||# (x >=# width) ||# (y <# 0#) ||# (y >=# height) of True -> E1 False -> E2

compiles to:

case tagToEnum# (word2Int# (or# (int2Word# (dataToTag# (>=# y height))) (or# (int2Word# (dataToTag# (<# y 0))) (or# (int2Word# (dataToTag# (>=# x width))) (int2Word# (dataToTag# (<# x 0))))))) of _ { False -> E2; True -> E1 }

Primitive logical operators `&&#`

and `not#`

can be defined in a similar matter.

**NOTE: Neither of this two workarounds produces good object code. The reason is that comparison operators return a Bool as a thunk that needs to be evaluated. The real solution requires that no thunk is created.**

## Solutions

A good beginning would be to implementing second of the above workarounds as a primop. Then we need to create primops that return unboxed values instead of a thunk. The big question is should an unboxed version of Bool be introduced into the language?

### First approach

Treat `Bool`

as a boxed version of primitive `Bool#`

. `True`

would be equivalent of `B# True#`

, `False`

of `B# False#`

:

data Bool = B# True# | B# False# -- B# :: Bool# -> Bool

Not sure if this can be considered equivalent to what the Haskell Report says about Bool. We need to ensure that `Bool#`

is populated only by `True#`

and `False#`

and that these two are translated to `1#`

and `0#`

in the Core. It should be **impossible** to write such a function at Haskell level:

g :: Bool -> Int -> Int g (B# b) (I# i) = I# (b + i)

This approach might require one additional case expression to inspect the value of `Bool`

at the Core level. For example:

f :: Int -> Int -> Int f x y = if x > y then x else y

would compile to:

case x of _ { I# xP -> case y of _ { I# yP -> case ># xP yP of _ { B# bP -> case bP of _ { 1# -> e1; 0# -> e2 } } } }

This would complicate Core a bit but it should be possible to compile such Core to exactly the same result as with normal `Bool`

. This code assumes that `>#`

has type `Int# -> Int# -> Bool`

, but to truly avoid branching in the Core we need `.># :: Int# -> Int# -> Bool#`

so that we get a primitive value that doesn't need to be inspected using case expression but can be directly used by primitive logical operators.

### Second approach

Second approach assumes creating type `Bool#`

that is independent of type `Bool`

. Boxing and unboxing would have to be done explicitly via additional functions:

data Bool = True | False -- no changes here bBox :: Bool# -> Bool bBox 1# = True bBox 0# = False bUnbox :: Bool -> Bool# bUnbox True = 1# bUnbox False = 0#

`Bool#`

could not be implemented as an ADT because it is unlifted and unboxed, while ADT value constructors need to be boxed and lifted (see comments in compiler/types/TyCon.lhs). There would need to be some magical way of ensuring that `Bool#`

is populated only by `#0`

and `1#`

and that these values cannot be mixed with unboxed integers. Perhaps this could be done by preventing programmer from explicitly creating values of that type (can this be done?) and allow her only to use values returned from functions.

Another problem with this approach is that it would introduce primitive logical operations `||#`

and `&&#`

with type `Int# -> Int# -> Int#`

- it is questionable whether anyone would want such operations available to the programmer. I think it is desirable to have primitive logical operators of type `Bool# -> Bool# -> Bool#`

.

## Proposed patch (13/03/2013)

The prototype patch posted on the trac implements six new prototype comparison primops:

.># :: Int# -> Int# -> Int# .<# :: Int# -> Int# -> Int# .>=# :: Int# -> Int# -> Int# .<=# :: Int# -> Int# -> Int# .==# :: Int# -> Int# -> Int# ./=# :: Int# -> Int# -> Int#

Each of these new primops takes two `Int#`

s that are to be compared. The result is also an `Int#`

: `0#`

if the relation between the operands does not hold and `1#`

when it does hold. For example `5# .># 3#`

returns `1#`

and `3# .># 3#`

returns `0#`

. With the new primops we can rewrite the original expression that motivated the problem:

case (x <# 0#) || (x >=# width) || (y <# 0#) || (y >=# height) of True -> E1 False -> E2

as

case (x .<# 0#) `orI#` (x .>=# width) `orI#` (y .<# 0#) `orI#` (y .>=# height) of True -> E1 False -> E2

(Note: `orI#`

is a bitwise OR operation on operands of type `Int#`

. It was introduced together with `andI#`

, `notI#`

and `xor#`

in #7689). Using the LLVM backend this compiles to:

# BB#0: # %c1nK movq %rsi, %rax orq %r14, %rax shrq $63, %rax cmpq %rdi, %r14 setge %cl movzbl %cl, %ecx orq %rax, %rcx cmpq %r8, %rsi setge %al movzbl %al, %eax orq %rcx, %rax jne .LBB2_1 # BB#3: # %c1ol movq (%rbp), %rax movl $r1m6_closure+1, %ebx jmpq *%rax # TAILCALL .LBB2_1: # %c1nK cmpq $1, %rax jne .LBB2_2 # BB#4: # %c1ov movq (%rbp), %rax movl $r1m7_closure+1, %ebx jmpq *%rax # TAILCALL .LBB2_2: # %c1ob movq r1m5_closure(%rip), %rax movl $r1m5_closure, %ebx jmpq *%rax # TAILCALL

The assembly does not contain comparisons and jumps in the scrutinee of the case expression, but still does jumps for selecting an appropriate branch of the case expression.

An alternative design decision is to make the new primops return a `Word#`

. I decided to use `Int#`

because `Int`

is used more often than `Word`

. If new primops returned a `Word#`

the user would have to use `int2Word#`

/`word2Int#`

primops to do conversions if she ever wished to box the result.

Comparisons for `Word#`

, `Float#`

and `Double#`

will be implemented once we make sure that the prototype implementation is correct.

Some concerns:

- should the primops return an
`Int#`

or`Word#`

as their result? - what names should the new primops have? I planned to use names with a dot preceeding the operator for
`Int#`

and`Double#`

comparisons (e.g.`./=#`

,`.>##`

) and names with "St" suffix for`Word#`

and`Float#`

, e.g.`gtWordSt#`

,`gtFloatSt#`

(`St`

stands for 'strict' because the result can be used with the strict bitwise logical operators). - how to remove the old
`Compare`

primops (ones of type`T -> T -> Bool`

)? - once we have the new primops do we really care about the unboxed
`Bool#`

?

### Benchmarks for the proposed patch

Below is a benchmark for the proof-of-concept filter function that demonstrates performance gains possible with the new primops:

{-# LANGUAGE BangPatterns, MagicHash #-} module Main ( main ) where import Control.Monad.ST (runST) import Criterion.Config (Config, cfgPerformGC, defaultConfig, ljust) import Criterion.Main import Data.Vector.Unboxed.Mutable (unsafeNew, unsafeSlice, unsafeWrite) import Data.Vector.Unboxed as U (Vector, filter, foldM', fromList, length, unsafeFreeze) import GHC.Exts (Int (I#), (.>=#)) import System.Random (RandomGen, mkStdGen, randoms) import Prelude hiding (filter, length) filterN :: U.Vector Int -> U.Vector Int filterN vec = runST $ do let !size = length vec fVec <- unsafeNew size let put i x = do let !(I# v) = x inc = I# (v .>=# 0#) unsafeWrite fVec i x return $ i + inc fSize <- foldM' put 0 vec unsafeFreeze $ unsafeSlice 0 fSize fVec main :: IO () main = return (mkStdGen 1232134332) >>= defaultMainWith benchConfig (return ()) . benchmarks benchmarks :: RandomGen g => g -> [Benchmark] benchmarks gen = let dataSize = 10 ^ (7 :: Int) inputList = take dataSize . randoms $ gen :: [Int] inputVec = fromList inputList isPositive = (> 0) in [ bgroup "Filter" [ bench "New" $ whnf (filterN) inputVec , bench "Vector" $ whnf (filter isPositive) inputVec ] ] benchConfig :: Config benchConfig = defaultConfig { cfgPerformGC = ljust True }

Compile and run with:

ghc -O2 -fllvm -optlo-O3 Main.hs ./Main -o report.html

Benchmarking shows that `filterN`

function is 60% faster than the `filter`

function based on stream fusion (tested for unboxed vectors containing 10 thousand and 10 million elements).

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