Version 1 (modified by adamgundry, 4 years ago) (diff)


Type Checker Plugins


There is much interest at present in various extensions to GHC Haskell type checking:

  • Type-level natural numbers, with an SMT solver... (Iavor Diatchki)
  • ...or integer ring unification (Christiaan Baaij)
  • Units of measure, with a solver for abelian group unification (Adam Gundry)
  • Type-level sets and maps, e.g. for effect tracking

All of these share a common pattern: they introduce extensions to the language of constraints or the equational theory of types, and corresponding extensions to the constraint solving algorithm X that underlies GHC's type checking algorithm OutsideIn(X). In principle, OutsideIn is parametric in the constraint solver, but in practice GHC provides only one solver, which supports type families and GADT equality constraints.

Type families can be used to encode some of the desired extensions, but they do not provide exactly the desired equational theory, and this leads to worse type inference behaviour and worse error messages than we might expect for a native implementation.

The aim of this proposal is to make it easier to experiment with alternative constraint solvers, by making it possible to supply them in normal Haskell libraries and dynamically loading them at compile time, rather than requiring implementation inside GHC itself. This is much like the situation for Core plugins, which allow experiments with transformations and optimizations of the intermediate language. The fact that plugins can be developed without recompiling GHC is crucial, as it reduces barriers to entry and allows the resulting constraint solvers to be used by non-developers.


Creating a plugin

A type checker plugin, like a Core plugin, consists of a normal Haskell module that exports an identifier plugin :: Plugin. We extend the CoreMonad.Plugin type with an additional field:

data Plugin = Plugin
  { installCoreToDos :: ... -- as at present
  , tcPlugin         :: [CommandLineOption] -> Maybe TcPlugin

data TcPlugin = forall t . TcPlugin
  { init  :: TcM t
  , solve :: t -> [Ct] -> [Ct] -> TcS ([SolveResult], [Ct])
  , close :: t -> TcM ()

data SolveResult = Stuck | Impossible | Simplified EvTerm

The exact design of the TcPlugin interface is open to debate, but the basic idea is as follows:

  • When type checking a module, GHC calls init once before constraint solving starts. This allows the plugin to initialise mutable state or open a connection to an external process (e.g. an external SMT solver).
  • During constraint solving, GHC repeatedly calls solve. Given lists of Given and Wanted constraints, this function should attempt to simplify the Wanteds, returning a SolveResult corresponding to each Wanted, and a list of additional constraints to introduce. If the plugin solver makes progress, GHC will re-start the constraint solving pipeline, looping until a fixed point is reached.
  • Finally, GHC calls close after constraint solving is finished, allowing the plugin to dispose of any resources it has allocated (e.g. terminating the SMT solver process).

Note that the TcM and TcS monads can perform arbitrary IO, although some care must be taken with side effects (particularly in TcS). In general, it is up to the plugin author to make sure that any IO they do is safe. The existentially quantified variable t allows the plugin to initialise some state and pass a handle to the function that does the solving.

Using a plugin

Just as at present, a module that uses a plugin must request it with a new GHC command-line option -fplugin=<module> and command line options may be supplied via -fplugin-opt=<module>:<args>.

This means that a user should always know which plugins are affecting the type checking of a module. It does mean that a library that relies on a special constraint domain (e.g. for units of measure), and exposes types involving these constraints, may need its users to explicitly activate a plugin for their programs to type check. This is probably desirable, since type checker plugins may cause unexpected type checker behaviour (even performing arbitrary IO).

If multiple type checker plugins are specified, they will be initialised, executed and closed in the order given on the command line. This makes it possible to use plugins that work on disjoint constraint domains (e.g. a units of measure plugin and a type-level numbers plugin), or even experiment with combining plugins for the same constraint domains.


The interface sketched above expects type checker plugins to produce evidence terms EvTerm for constraints they have simplified. Different plugins may take different approaches generating this evidence. The simplest approach is to use "proof by blatant assertion": essentially this amounts to providing an axiom `forall s t . s ~ t` and trusting that the constraint solver uses it in a sound way. However, in some cases (such as an abelian group unifier used for units of measure) it should be possible for the solver to encode the axioms of the equational theory and build proofs from them.

Open questions and future directions

  • At which point should the plugin constraint solver be called during GHC's constraint solving process? Before or after the main constraint solver, or does it depend on the plugin? We may need an additional variant on the solver for the simplifying givens stage.
  • Do we want to provide other extension points for the type checker, for example extending typeclass or type family instance lookup, or changing the generalisation/defaulting behaviour?
  • For units of measure, it would be nice to be able to extend the pretty-printer for types (so we could get a nicely formatted inferred type like m/s^2 rather than a nested type family application). This ought to be possible using a plugin approach, provided we can thread the required information via the SDocContext.
  • It would be nice for plugins to be able to manipulate the error messages that result from type checking, along the lines of error reflection in Idris.