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# Kind polymorphism and datatype promotion

This page gives additional implementation details for the `-XPolyKinds` flag. The grand design is described in the paper Giving Haskell a Promotion. Most of the work has been done and merged into GHC 7.4.1. The relevant user documentation is in [the user's guide (add link when it's up)] and on the Haskell wiki page. What still doesn't work, or doesn't work correctly, is described here.

# Explicit kind variables

Currently we do not handle kind variables in the source language. So the following is invalid, for instance:

type family Apply (f :: k1 -> k2) (a :: k1)

Naturally we want to allow this. The syntax we propose is the one above, as described in the paper. (At least until ExplicitTypeApplication gets implemented.)

**Future work:** allow kind variable annotation.
Since the core language has all the support for kind variables, this shouldn't be too hard.

# Kind defaulting in type families

# #5682 (proper handling of infix promoted constructors)

# Kind synonyms (from type synonym promotion)

At the moment we are not promoting type synonyms, i.e. the following is invalid:

data Nat = Ze | Su Nat type Nat2 = Nat type family Add (m :: Nat2) (n :: Nat2) :: Nat2

**Future work:** promote type synonyms to kind synonyms.

# Kind-polymorphic `Typeable`

The paper describes an improved implementation of `Typeable` (section 2.5). This has not
yet been implemented; the current `Typeable` class is:

class Typeable (a :: *) where typeOf :: a -> TypeRep

The new proposal makes it into:

data Proxy a = Proxy class Typeable a where typeRep :: Proxy a -> TypeRep

Note that `Proxy` is kind polymorphic, and so is the new `Typeable`: its type argument
`a` can have any kind `k`. The paper goes on to describe how we can then give
kind-specific instances:

instance Typeable Int where typeRep _ = ... instance Typeable [] where typeRep _ = ...

The following changes need to done in the compiler:

- Update
`Data.Typeable`in`base`(mostly deleting classes and adding`Proxy`).

- Rewrite the
`deriving Typeable`mechanism in`TcGenDeriv`.

From the user's perspective nothing has to change. We can make the new implementation backwards-compatible by:

- Calling the method of
`Typeable``typeRep`, and not`typeOf` - Defining
`typeOf`,`typeOf1`, ..., separately

Concretely, the new `Data.Typeable` will look something like this:

{-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables #-} {-# LANGUAGE PolyKinds #-} -- Type representation: unchanged data TypeRep = ... -- Kind-polymorphic proxy data Proxy t = Proxy -- Kind-polymorphic Typeable class Typeable a where typeRep :: Proxy a -> TypeRep -- Instances for base types instance Typeable Char where ... instance Typeable [] where ... instance Typeable Either where ... -- Old methods for backwards compatibility typeOf :: forall a. Typeable a => a -> TypeRep typeOf x = typeRep (getType x) where getType :: a -> Proxy a getType _ = Proxy typeOf1 :: forall t (a :: *). Typeable t => t a -> TypeRep typeOf1 x = typeRep (getType1 x) where getType1 :: t a -> Proxy t getType1 _ = Proxy

This is nearly enough; remember that currently we can do things like this:

typeOf "p" typeOf1 "p"

And they mean different things: the first is the representation of `[Char]`,
whereas the second is the representation of `[]`. In particular,
`typeOf1 "p" == typeOf1 [()]`, for instance. To keep this behavior we have
to guarantee that a datatype `T` with type parameters `a1` through `an` gets instances:

data T a1 ... an instance Typeable T instance (Typeable a1) => Typeable (T a1) ... instance (Typeable a1, ..., Typeable an) => Typeable (T a1 ... an)

We can do this as before, by defining the arity `n-1` instance from the
arity `n` instance:

instance (Typeable t, Typeable (a :: *)) => Typeable (t a) instance (Typeable t, Typeable (a :: *), Typeable (b :: *)) => Typeable (t a b)

If we're willing to use `-XUndecidableInstances`, we can even do this with
a single instance, relying on `-XPolyKinds`:

instance (Typeable t, Typeable a) => Typeable (t a)

In this instance, `t` has kind `k -> *` and `a` has kind `k`.

# Generalized Algebraic Data Kinds (GADKs)

**Future work:** this section deals with a proposal to collapse kinds and sorts into a single system
so as to allow Generalised Algebraic DataKinds (GADKs). The sort `BOX` should
become a kind, whose *kind* is again `BOX`. Kinds would no longer be classified by sorts;
they would be classified by kinds.

(As an aside, sets containing themselves result in an inconsistent system; see, for instance, this example. This is not of practical concern for Haskell.)

Collapsing kinds and sorts would allow some form of indexing on kinds. Consider the following two types, currently not promotable in FC-pro:

data Proxy a = Proxy data Ind (n :: Nat) :: * where ...

In `Proxy`, `a` has kind `forall k. k`. This type is not promotable because
`a` does not have kind `*`. This is unfortunate, since a new feature (kind
polymorphism) is getting on the way of another new feature (promoting
datatypes). As for `Ind`, it takes an argument of kind (promoted) `Nat`,
which renders it non-promotable. Why is this? Well, promoted `Proxy` and `Ind`
would have sorts:

Proxy :: forall s. s -> BOX Ind :: 'Nat -> BOX

But `s` is a sort variable, and `'Nat` is the sort arising from promoting
the kind `Nat` (which itself arose from promoting a datatype). FC-pro has
neither sort variables nor promoted sorts. However, if there are no sorts, and
`BOX` is the **kind** of all kinds, the "sorts" ("kinds", now) of promoted `Proxy`
and `Ind` become:

Proxy :: forall k. k -> BOX Ind :: Nat -> BOX

Now instead of sort variables we have kind variables, and we do not need to promote
`Nat` again.

Kind indexing alone should not require kind equality constraints; we always require type/kind signatures for kind polymorphic stuff, so then wobbly types can be used to type check generalised algebraic kinds, avoiding the need for coercions. While this would still require some implementation effort, it should be "doable".

# Better support for kinds in Template Haskell

Currently there is no support for promoted datatypes, or the kind `Constraint`, in Template Haskell.

**Future work:** address #5612, designing and implementing a way for Template Haskell to reify the new kinds.