wiki:Emacs

Version 32 (modified by simonmar, 5 months ago) (diff)

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Emacs tips and tricks

Most of us use Emacs for GHC development. This page lists various Emacs configuration tips and tricks used by GHC developers. It is meant to be self-contained so that you can grab relevant piece of configuration, put it into your config file and benefit from it instantly. The only exception are two larger extensions for Emacs (haskell-mode and ghc-mod), where we direct you to external installation instructions and tutorials.

Each entry includes a short description and instruction how to enable given setting (if it contains only a block of lisp code it means you need to add it to your .emacs configuration file). All configuration is given for Emacs 24, unless otherwise noted.

Most of the packages used below are bundled with Emacs. If a package is not part of your Emacs installation you need to install it by yourself. You can do it manually by downloading relevant *.el file and putting it in your configuration directory or you can use ELPA - Emacs package management system. A five minute introduction to ELPA can be found here.

General

IDO mode

Description: IDO stands for Interactively Do Things and it greatly improves file opening and switching between buffers. When opening a file it shows list of files and directories in current directory, allows to navigate the directory tree in an easy manner, provides intuitive filtering capabilities and allows to select a file by selecting its name using arrow keys. Similar behaviour is provided when switching between opened buffers. A nice introductory tutorial to IDO can be found here.

How to enable:

(setq ido-enable-flex-matching t)
(setq ido-everywhere t)
(ido-mode 1)

Disable tabs for indentation

Description: We used to use tabs for indentation, but now we aim to have no tabs in the source code. There is a hook that will prevent you from pushing tabs into repository (unless file already contained tabs). This setting will prevent you from introducing tabs in the source code.

How to enable:

(setq-default indent-tabs-mode nil)

Highlight text beyond 80th column

Description: If you have a tendency to write too long lines of code this will help you by highlighting text beyond 80th column.

How to enable:

(require 'whitespace)
(setq whitespace-style '(face lines-tail))
(setq whitespace-line-column 80)
(global-whitespace-mode t)

Automatically removes trailing whitespaces when file is saved

Description: Currently source code of GHC contains lots of trailing whitespaces, which means that this setting is dangerous. It will remove ALL trailing whitespaces in every file that you edit, so you might have one or two lines changed by you and a hundred lines automatically changed by removing trailing whitespaces. This will require you to separate whitespaces into a separate commit by using git add -i. This is tedious, so be warned.

How to enable:

(add-hook 'before-save-hook 'delete-trailing-whitespace)

Highlight trailing whitespaces

Description: Automatic removal of trailing whitespaces described above can be a bit inconvenient to use. One of the alternative approaches to problem of trailing whitespaces is making them visible, so that you notice when you accidentally introduce them into a file. You will also see already existing trailing whitespaces. For more details see Useless Whitespace section of Emacs documentation.

How to enable:

(setq-default show-trailing-whitespace t)
(setq-default indicate-empty-lines t)

Kill whole line and newline with C-k if at beginning of line

Description: IF you place cursor at the beginning of line, the default behaviour of C-k is to kill all text until newline, but not the newline itself. You need to type C-k again to remove that newline. This setting allows to avoid typing C-k twice by killing all text until the newline and newline itself (but only when cursor is placed at the beginning of a line).

How to enable:

(setq kill-whole-line t)

Toggle line number display

Description: Allows you to toggle line number display with F11. For those who like to see line numbers at the beginning of each line.

How to enable:

(global-set-key (kbd "<f11>") 'global-linum-mode)

Jump to first error

Description: Allows you to jump to the first error in compiled or interpreted code.

How to enable:

(global-set-key (kbd "M-g M-f") 'first-error)

On my setup, this won't work the first time a file is loaded into GHCi. I just try to load the file a second time, and then I'm set for the rest of the session.

Always display column number in mode line

Description: By default Emacs only displays line number in the mode line. This setting adds column number.

How to enable:

(column-number-mode 1)

Switch between windows with Alt-<window number>

Description: Enhances switching between multiple windows. To switch to another window use pressing Alt-<window number>. Number of each window is displayed in red in the mode line.

How to enable: You need to install window-number extension and add this to your configuration:

(require 'window-number)
(window-number-mode)
(window-number-meta-mode)

Switch to next/previous buffer with a single key

Description: This extension allows you to switch between next and previous buffer with F9 and F10 (by default). Emacs buffers (like *messages*) are ignored - use Shift-F9 and Shift-F10 to include them as well. Note that this extension maintains a list of buffers. After selecting a buffer it is moved to the beginning of the list. This means that buffers are ordered by the time of their recent use.

How to enable: You need to install cycle-buffer extension and add this to your configuration:

(autoload 'cycle-buffer                     "cycle-buffer"
  "Cycle forward." t)
(autoload 'cycle-buffer-backward            "cycle-buffer"
  "Cycle backward." t)
(autoload 'cycle-buffer-permissive          "cycle-buffer"
  "Cycle forward allowing *buffers*." t)
(autoload 'cycle-buffer-backward-permissive "cycle-buffer"
  "Cycle backward allowing *buffers*." t)
(autoload 'cycle-buffer-toggle-interesting  "cycle-buffer"
  "Toggle if this buffer will be considered." t)
(global-set-key [(f9)]        'cycle-buffer-backward)
(global-set-key [(f10)]       'cycle-buffer)
(global-set-key [(shift f9)]  'cycle-buffer-backward-permissive)
(global-set-key [(shift f10)] 'cycle-buffer-permissive)

Untabifying a buffer

Description: Slowly, GHC is moving away from tabs. After modifying a file and committing the changes, we tend to detab the file completely, and set -fwarn-tabs to make sure they don't slip in again. Normally it's convenient to immediately detab the file and commit that afterwords, while the buffer is open

How to enable:

This is equivalent to mark-whole-buffer which is bound to C-x h by default, followed by M-x untabify which operates in the current region.

Add this to your configuration, and afterwords you can run M-x untabify-buffer to nuke all the tabs:

(defun untabify-buffer ()
  "Untabify current buffer."
  (interactive)
  (save-excursion (untabify (point-min) (point-max))))

Re-format a comment

Description: After writing a longer comment - either enclosed in a block {- ... -} or with each line preceded by -- - you can automatically format it to a desired line width using M-q.

How to enable: Set desired line width with

(setq-default fill-column 80)

When Emacs is already running you can modify this setting with C-x f or M-x set-fill-column.

Haskell-specific

Haskell mode

Description: Haskell mode is a major mode for Emacs. Features include: syntax highlighting, GHCi integration and automatic indentation. See online manual for details.

How to enable: See installation instructions on github.

ghc-mod

Description: Extends haskell-mode. Features include: building on the fly with flymake, hlint integration, auto-completion of keywords. See here for a complete list.

How to enable: See installation instructions here.

Using tags to quickly locate definitions in a project

Description: Emacs can use a special index file, the TAGS file, that stores locations of various definitions (functions, modules, data types) in a given directory. Once you've generated TAGS file (see installation instructions below) you can type M-. and enter name of identifier definition to jump to. Emacs by default jumps to identifier currently under the cursor.

How to enable: Begin by installing hasktags package from Hackage:

cabal install hasktags

Now go to the directory for which you want to generate tags and run:

hasktags --ignore-close-implementation .

In Emacs type M-x visit-tags-table and point to the generated TAGS.

Note on hasktags: hasktags program used to generate TAGS file has problems with correctly recognizing declarations of value constructors in a data type. It often mistakes pattern matching of the form (DataConstructor {}) as a data declaration and jumps to that pattern match instead of declaration.

Note on using tags for GHC sources: Generating tags for top directory of GHC source tree. so that index is generated for the compiler sources as well as boot libraries, gives rather bad results. The problem is that many libraries have definitions of identical functions, e.g. integer-gmp and integer-simple define the same functions and hoopl has lots of obsolete source files that contain definitions of exactly identical functions. This makes jumping to definitions unreliable - you will often be taken to some unused definition. Therefore we recommend to generate tags file only for compiler/ directory.

GHC-specific

It can be helpful to have a few commands specific to working on GHC. For these to work, Emacs must know where your local GHC tree is.

(setq ghc-location "~/ghc") ;; change as necessary

If you switch between active trees, you must use a setq to change this variable, with, say, M-: (setq ghc-location "~/other-ghc") <Enter>.

Searching the GHC source tree with a hotkey

Description: Even with hasktags, sometimes you need to search within the source tree. rgrep does this job well, but it asks too many redundant questions. So, the following code optimizes for a search just within the compiler directory:

How to enable: The following code binds this search to M-c, but you may want your own key combination. Note that it uses ghc-location, set above.

  ;; search withing GHC compiler code
(defun rgrep-ghc (regexp)
  (interactive (list (progn (grep-compute-defaults) (grep-read-regexp))))
  (rgrep regexp "*hs" (concat ghc-location "/compiler/")))
(global-set-key (kbd "M-c") 'rgrep-ghc)

Building GHC with a hotkey

Description: By having GHC be built with a hotkey, working on GHC becomes much more interactive. In a typical session, though, I have to change the actual compilation command based on my needs. So, by default, "compiling GHC" means fast-building the stage-2 compiler, but I do frequently change ghc-compile.

How to enable:

(defun compile-ghc ()
  (interactive)
  (let ((compile-command (if (boundp 'ghc-compile)
                             (concat "cd " ghc-location "; " ghc-compile)
                             (concat "cd " ghc-location "/ghc; make 2"))))
    (compile compile-command))
  (set-buffer "*compilation*")
  (setq default-directory ghc-location))

(defun set-compile-ghc ()
  (local-set-key (kbd "C-q") 'compile-ghc))

(add-hook 'haskell-mode-hook 'set-compile-ghc)

A few things to note here:

  • The above code binds C-q (perhaps a bad combination, as I've accidentally quit Emacs from my Mac with the wrong modifier key!) to compiling GHC from any Haskell file, even those unrelated to GHC. But, when I'm working outside of GHC, I tend to use C-c C-l to load into GHCi, so this works out OK.
  • By default, as said above, this will compile the stage 2 compiler for the GHC at ghc-location. If you set ghc-compile with, say, M-: (setq ghc-compile "cd compiler; make 1") <Enter>, then this will build the stage 1 compiler.

Make the quotes in GHC error messages display nicely

Description: If you run a shell within emacs, you'll see weird escape sequences when GHC displays error message involving Unicode forward or back quotes, eg

    The type signature for \342\200\233foo\342\200\231 lacks an accompanying binding
      (The type signature must be given where \342\200\233foo\342\200\231 is declared)

How to enable: To make emacs display this Unicode nicely, use this (see #2507)

(setq locale-coding-system 'utf-8)
(set-terminal-coding-system 'utf-8-unix)
(set-keyboard-coding-system 'utf-8)
(set-selection-coding-system 'utf-8)
(prefer-coding-system 'utf-8)