GHC Commentary: Garbage Collecting CAFs
A static closure is a heap object that is allocated statically, once and for all, at compile time. It lives at a fixed address.
reverse_closure, the static, top level closure object for the function
reverse. If you evaluate
map reverse xs, then it's
reverse_closure that is passed as the first argument to
Some static closures are thunks; we call these CAFs, or Constant Applicative Forms. Example
squares :: [Int] squares = map square [1..]
Why CAFs are awkward
CAFs are awkward because:
- A thunk must be updated so that, after its first use, all subsequent uses get the benefit.
- The value to which the thunk is updated will be in the dynamic heap. For example, when
map square [1..]is evaluated, it'll allocate cons cells in the dynamic heap.
- So the CAF constitutes a "root", pointing into the dynamic heap, which the garbage collector must know about.
What we do about it
We could just say that all CAFs are roots; but then people complain about space leaks, when a big CAF (i.e. one pointing to a large data structure) is retained even when it can no longer be referred to. So GHC goes to strenuous efforts to track when a CAF "can no longer be referred to".
So here's what we do:
- A static closure is CAFFY if a CAF can be reached from it
- Every info-table has a Static Reference Table (SRT), which lists all the CAFFY closures that are directly mentioned by the code for the closure
- When following the reachable pointers in a closure, the garbage collector includes the pointers in the closure's SRT
We say that a static closure (whether a thunk or not) is CAFFY if
- It is a CAF, or
- One or more of its free variables is CAFFY
foo = 1 :  bar = 2 : squares wob = 3 : bar
foo is not CAFFY, but
bar is CAFFY because it has
squares (a CAF) as a free variable. And likewise
wob is CAFFY because it has
bar as a free variable.
Now, say that we have a nested let-binding
f x = let g = \y -> x + y + head squares in ...
The heap-allocated closure for
g has a pointer to its free variable
x. But its info table also has an SRT,
and that SRT points to
squares_closure, becuase the latter is CAFFY. So if the
g-closure is alive,
squares_closure alive, and hence keeps alive the list that
squares has evaluated to.
Some implementation details
- A CAFFY closure has a
MayHaveCafRefs; a definitely non-CAFFY closure has a
- See Note [CAF management] in rts/sm/Storage.c for more information.
Static Reference Tables
The info table of various closures may contain information about what static objects are referenced by the closure. This information is stored in two parts:
- a static reference table (SRT), which is an array of references to static objects
- a bitmask which specifies which of the objects are actually used by the closure.
There are two different ways to access this information depending on the size of the SRT:
- "small": if
srt_bitmapis a small bitmap, not all 1s, then GET_FUN?_SRT contains the SRT.
- "large": if
srt_bitmapis all 1s, then GET_FUN?_SRT contains a large bitmap, and the actual SRT.
Evacuating Static Objects
While scavenging objects, we also process (aka "evacuate") any static objects that need to be kept alive. When a GC thread discovers a live static object, it places it on its
list. Later, this list is used to scavange the static objects, potentially finding more live objects.
Note that this process might find more static objects, and thus further extend the
When a static object is scavenged, it is removed from
static_objects and placed on another list, called
scavenged_static_objects. Later, we use this list to "clean up" the liveness markers from these static objects, so that we can repeat the process on the next garbage collection.
Note that we can't "clean up" the liveness markers as we go along because we use them to notice
cycles among the static objects.