wiki:Commentary/Rts/Storage/CAFs

Version 12 (modified by diatchki, 5 years ago) (diff)

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GHC Commentary: Garbage Collecting CAFs

Files: rts/sm/GC.c, function scavange_srt in rts/sm/Scav.h

Constant Applicative Forms, or CAFs for short, are top-level values defined in a program. To avoid memory leaks caused by CAFs we need to detect when all values/functions that could potentially refer to a CAF are gone, and so it is safe to deallocate the CAF.

(???) To achieve this, all static objects are linked together with the static link field. During GC we maintain traverse the static objects to see which are still live. Closures that might refer to CAFs contain a Static Reference Table (SRT) which indicates what static objects are still needed.

Static Reference Tables

File: includes/rts/storage/InfoTables.h

The info table of various closures may contain information about what static objects are references by the closure. This information is stored in two parts:

  1. a static reference table (SRT), which is an array of references to static objects
  2. a bitmask which specifies which of the objects are actually used by the closure.

There are two different ways to access this information depending on the size of the SRT:

  • "small": if srt_bitmask is a small bitmask, not all 1s, then GET_FUN?_SRT contains the SRT.
  • "large": if srt_bitmask is all 1s, then GET_FUN?_SRT contains a large bitmap, and the actual SRT.

Evacuating Static Objects

Files: rts/sm/GCThread.h, rts/sm/Evac.c, rts/sm/GC.c

While scavenging objects, we also process (aka "evacuate") any static objects that need to be kept alive. When a GC thread discovers a live static object, it places it on its static_objects list. Later, this list is used to scavange the static objects, potentially finding more live objects. Note that this process might find more static objects, and thus further extend the static_objects list.

When a static object is scavenged, it is removed from static_objects and placed on another list, called scavenged_static_objects. Later, we use this list to "clean up" the liveness markers from these static objects, so that we can repeat the process on the next garbage collection. Note that we can't "clean up" the liveness markers as we go along because we use them to notice cycles among the static objects.