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Video: Abstract Syntax Types (1hr03")
The HsSyn types
The program is initially parsed into "HsSyn", a collection of data types that describe the full abstract syntax of Haskell. HsSyn is a pretty big collection of types: there are 52 data types at last count. Many are pretty trivial, but a few have a lot of constructors (HsExpr has 40). HsSyn represents Haskell in its full glory, complete with all syntactic sugar.
The HsSyn modules live in the compiler/hsSyn directory. Each module declares a related group of declarations, and gives their pretty-printer.
- compiler/hsSyn/HsSyn.lhs: the root module. It exports everything you need, and it's generally what you should import.
- compiler/hsSyn/HsBinds.lhs: bindings.
- compiler/hsSyn/HsImpExp.lhs: imports and exports.
- compiler/hsSyn/HsDecls.lhs: top-level declarations.
- compiler/hsSyn/HsExpr.lhs: expressions, match expressions, comprehensions.
- compiler/hsSyn/HsLit.lhs: literals.
- compiler/hsSyn/HsPat.lhs: patterns.
- compiler/hsSyn/HsTypes.lhs: types.
- compiler/hsSyn/HsUtils.lhs: utility functions (no data types).
There is significant mutual recursion between modules, and hence a couple of lhs-boot files. Look at ModuleDependencies to see the dependencies.
Decorating HsSyn with type information
The type checker adds type information to the syntax tree, otherwise leaving it as undisturbed as possible. This is done in two ways:
- Some constructors have a field of type PostTcType, which is just a synonym for Type. For example:
data HsExpr id = ... | ExplicitList PostTcType [LHsExpr id] | ... type PostTcType = Type placeHolderType :: PostTcType placeHolderType = panic "Evaluated the place holder for a PostTcType"An ExplicitList represents the explicit list construct in Haskell (e.g. "[2, 4, 1]"). The parser fills the PostTcType field with an error thunk HsTypes.placeHolderType; and the renamer does not touch it. The typechecker figures out the type, and fills in the value. So until the type checker, we cannot examine or print the PostTcType fields.
The error thunks mean that we can't conveniently pretty-print the PostTcType fields, because the pretty-printer would poke the error thunks when run on pre-typchecked code. We could have defined PostTcType to be Maybe Type, but that would have meant unwrapping lots of Just constructors, which is messy. It would be nicer to parameterise HsSyn over the PostTcType fields. Thus:type RnHsBinds = HsBinds Name () -- After renaming type TcHsBinds = HsBinds Id Type -- After type checking
This would be a Good Thing to do.
- In a few cases, the typechecker moves from one constructor to another. Example:
data HsPat id = ... | ConPatIn (Located id) (HsConDetails id (LPat id)) | ConPatOut (Located DataCon) [TyVar] -- Existentially bound type variables [id] -- Ditto dictionaries (DictBinds id) -- Bindings involving those dictionaries (HsConDetails id (LPat id)) Type -- The type of the pattern ...The parser and renamer use ConPatIn; the typechecker generates a ConPatOut. This naming convention is used consistently.
- There are a few constructors added by type checker (rather than replacing an input constructor), particularly:
- HsWrap, in the HsExpr type.
- AbsBinds, in the HsBinds type.
These are invariably to do with type abstraction and application, since Haskell source is implicitly generalized and instantiated, whereas GHC's intermediate form is explicitly generalized and instantiated.
HsSyn makes heavy use of the Located type (compiler/BasicTypes/SrcLoc):
data Located e = L SrcSpan e
A Located t is just a pair of a SrcSpan (which describes the source location of t) and a syntax tree t. The module SrcLoc defines two other types:
- SrcLoc specifies a particular source location: (filename, line number, character position)
- SrcSpan specifes a range of source locations: (filename, start line number and character position, end line number and character position)
More details in compiler/BasicTypes/SrcLoc.
Naming convention within the code: "LHs" means located Haskell, e.g.
type LHsBinds n = Located (HsBinds n)