|Version 4 (modified by p_tanski, 8 years ago) (diff)|
Native Code Generator
For other information related to this page, see:
- the Old GHC Commentary: Native Code Generator page (comments regarding Maximal Munch and register allocation optimisations are mostly still valid)
- BackEndNotes for optimisation ideas regarding the current NCG
Overview: Files, Phases
After GHC has produced Cmm (use -ddump-cmm or -ddump-opt-cmm to view), the Native Code Generator (NCG) transforms Cmm into architecture-specific assembly code. The NCG is located in compiler/nativeGen and is separated into eight modules:
top-level module for the NCG, imported by compiler/main/CodeOutput.lhs; also defines the Monad for optimising generic Cmm code, CmmOptM
generates architecture-specific instructions (a Haskell-representation of assembler) from Cmm code
contains data definitions and some functions (comparison, size, simple conversions) for machine instructions, mostly carried out through the Instr data type, defined here
defines the the main monad in the NCG: the Native code Machine instruction Monad, NatM, and related functions. Note: the NCG switches between two monads at times, especially in AsmCodeGen: NatM and the UniqSM Monad used throughout the compiler.
handles generation of position independent code and issues related to dynamic linking in the NCG; related to many other modules outside the NCG that handle symbol import, export and references, including CLabel, Cmm, codeGen and the RTS, and the Mangler
Pretty prints machine instructions (Instr) to assembler code (currently readable by GNU's as), with some small modifications, especially for comparing and adding floating point numbers on x86 architectures
defines the main register information function, regUsage, which takes a set of real and virtual registers and returns the actual registers used by a particular Instr; register allocation is in AT&T syntax order (source, destination), in an internal function, usage; defines the RegUsage data type
one of the most complicated modules in the NCG, RegisterAlloc manages the allocation of registers for each basic block of Haskell-abstracted assembler code: management involves liveness analysis, allocation or deletion of temporary registers, spilling temporary values to the spill stack (memory) and many other optimisations. Note: much of this detail will be described later; basic block is defined below.
and one header file:
defines macros used to separate architecture-specific code in the Haskell NCG files; since GHC currently only generates machine code for the architecture on which it was compiled (GHC is not currently a cross-compiler), the Haskell NCG files become considerably smaller after preprocessing; ideally all architecture-specific code would reside in separate files and GHC would have them available to support cross-compiler capabilities.
The NCG runs through two main phases: a machine-independent phase and a machine-dependent phase.
The machine-independent phase begins with Cmm blocks. A Cmm block is roughly parallel to a Cmm function or procedure in the same way as a compiler may generate a C function into a block of assembler instructions. Cmm blocks are held as lists of Cmm statements ([CmmStmt], defined in compiler/cmm/Cmm.hs, or type CmmStmts, defined in compiler/cmm/CmmUtils.hs). A machine-specific (assembler) instruction is represented as a Instr. During this phase:
- each Cmm block is lazily converted to abstract machine instructions (Instr) operating on an infinite number of registers--since the NCG Haskell files only contain instructions for the host computer on which GHC was compiled, these Instr are machine-specific;
- for each basic block (a, contiguous block of instructions with no branches (jumps) in each Cmm block), real registers are lazily allocated based on the number of available registers on the target machine (say, 32 integer and 32 floating-point registers on the PowerPC architecture).
Note: if a basic block simultaneously requires more registers than are available on the target machine and the temporary variable needs to be used (would sill be live) after the current instruction, it will be moved (spilled) into memory; and,
- each Cmm block is optimised by reordering its basic blocks from the original order (the Instr order from the Cmm) to minimise the number of branches between basic blocks, in other words, by maximising fallthrough of execution from one basic block to the next.