Changes between Version 6 and Version 7 of Commentary/Compiler/Backends/NCG


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Timestamp:
Nov 14, 2006 5:36:21 AM (7 years ago)
Author:
p_tanski
Comment:

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  • Commentary/Compiler/Backends/NCG

    v6 v7  
    3333The NCG has '''machine-independent'''  and '''machine-dependent''' parts.   
    3434 
    35 The '''machine-independent''' parts relate to generic programming, especially for optimisations, and Cmm.  The main machine-independent parts begin with ''Cmm blocks.''  A ''Cmm block'' is roughly parallel to a Cmm function or procedure in the same way as a compiler may generate a C function into an assembler function composed of smaller ''basic blocks'' separated by branches (jumps).  ''Cmm block''s are held as lists of {{{Cmm}}} statements ({{{[CmmStmt]}}}, defined in [[GhcFile(compiler/cmm/Cmm.hs)]], or the {{{type}}} synonym {{{CmmStmts}}}, defined in [[GhcFile(compiler/cmm/CmmUtils.hs)]]).  A machine-specific (assembler) instruction is represented as a {{{Instr}}}. 
    36  1. each Cmm block is lazily converted to abstract machine instructions ({{{Instr}}}) operating on an infinite number of registers--since the NCG Haskell files only contain instructions for the host computer on which GHC was compiled, these {{{Instr}}} are machine-specific;[[BR]][[BR]] 
    37  1. for each ''basic block'' (a, contiguous block of instructions with no branches (jumps) in each ''{{{Cmm}}} block''), real registers are lazily allocated based on the number of available registers on the target machine (say, 32 integer and 32 floating-point registers on the PowerPC architecture).[[BR]]''Note'': if a basic block simultaneously requires more registers than are available on the target machine and the temporary variable needs to be used (would sill be ''live'') after the current instruction, it will be moved (''spilled'') into memory; and,[[BR]][[BR]] 
    38  1. each Cmm block is optimised by reordering its basic blocks from the original order (the {{{Instr}}} order from the {{{Cmm}}}) to minimise the number of branches between basic blocks, in other words, by maximising fallthrough of execution from one basic block to the next. 
     35The '''machine-independent''' parts relate to generic operations, especially optimisations, on Cmm code.  The main machine-independent parts begin with ''Cmm blocks.''  A ''Cmm block'' is roughly parallel to a Cmm function or procedure in the same way as a compiler may generate a C function into an assembler symbol used as a label, composed of smaller ''basic blocks'' ({{{BasicBlock}}}) separated by branches (jumps)--every basic block ends in a branch instruction.  ''Cmm block''s are held as lists of {{{Cmm}}} statements ({{{[CmmStmt]}}}, defined in [[GhcFile(compiler/cmm/Cmm.hs)]], or the {{{type}}} synonym {{{CmmStmts}}}, defined in [[GhcFile(compiler/cmm/CmmUtils.hs)]]).  A machine-specific (assembler) instruction is represented as a {{{Instr}}}.  The machine-independent NCG parts: 
     36 1. optimise each Cmm block by reordering its basic blocks from the original order (the {{{Instr}}} order from the {{{Cmm}}}) to minimise the number of branches between basic blocks, in other words, by maximising fallthrough of execution from one basic block to the next.[[BR]][[BR]] 
     37 1. lazily convert each Cmm block to abstract machine instructions ({{{Instr}}}) operating on an infinite number of registers--since the NCG Haskell files only contain instructions for the host computer on which GHC was compiled, these {{{Instr}}} are machine-specific; and,[[BR]][[BR]] 
     38 1. lazily allocate real registers for each basic block, based on the number of available registers on the target (currently, only the host) machine; for example, 32 integer and 32 floating-point registers on the PowerPC architecture.  The NCG does not currently have support for SIMD registers such as the vector registers for Altivec or any variation of SSE.[[BR]]''Note'': if a basic block simultaneously requires more registers than are available on the target machine and the temporary variable needs to be used (would sill be ''live'') after the current instruction, it will be moved (''spilled'') into memory. 
    3939 
    40 The '''machine-dependent''' parts generally cover : 
    41  1. the number and kinds of registers available 
    42  1.  
     40The '''machine-dependent''' parts: 
     41 1. define the abstract (Haskell) assembler {{{Instr}}} for the target (host) machine and convert every Cmm block into it; 
     42 1. define, manage and allocate the real registers available on the target system; 
     43 1. pretty-print the Haskell-assembler to GNU AS (GAS) assembler code