wiki:BackEndNotes

GHC Backend Ideas

This page is a collection of ideas for improving GHC's back-end, from codeGen downwards.

Some of these ideas have been kicking around for a while, some are the result of a discussion between myself (Simon M.) and Roman Leshchinskiy today (2006-05-26).

Overview

The general direction we want to move in is to drop the use of gcc as an optimising code generator in favour of the native code generator and C--. The reasons for dropping gcc are many, briefly:

  • Complexity: the mangler, enough said
  • Fragility: new versions of gcc usually break GHC, bugs occur that are dependent on the gcc version, gcc is one more variable in a bug report.
  • Compilation speed: gcc keeps getting slower, -fvia-C is already more that 2x slower than -fasm.
  • Flexibility: we want more freedom to define our own calling conventions and register assignments. If we drop the requirement for -fvia-C, we can improve performance (see below).
  • Dependencies: we don't want to ship gcc with GHC on Windows.

Ultimately C-- should provide the best code generation route in terms of portability and efficiency, but the compiler isn't there yet, and C-- code generation in GHC is dependent on some major refactoring in codeGen (we need to decouple the explicit stack handling from the rest of the code generator).

Note that we still want to retain the unregisterised C route. It is essential for bootstrapping, and it doesn't suffer from the problems above: we don't care about peformance, and unreg doesn't require the mangler.

Improving code for loops

The NCG already generates reasonable code compared to -fvia-C, but that's only because -fvia-C isn't particularly good. We have known for a long time that we don't give gcc enough room to really optimise the code well, especially loops. Historically this hasn't been a problem, because most Haskell programs don't contain small tight loops. Now however, we're starting to see more code that relies on good loop performance (Data.ByteString? and Data.Array.Parallel).

The code generated by GHC for a tail-recursive loop uses an explicit tail call for the recursion, which gcc cannot spot as a branch. Furthermore, arguments to the recursive function are passed either in fixed registers or on the stack.

Interim solution

As a first step on the way to better code, we can do a Cmm to Cmm optimisation which reconstructs loops using branching and with loop-carried data in local variables. (Roman has implemented this, and plans to clean up/commit shortly). This is partly a temporary solution, long term we plan to improve the native code generator with real loop optimisations, described below.

Heap/stack checks

We often see tail-recursive functions that include a heap or stack check purely for the exit case of the loop. See #1498. For example, if the function looks something like this:

f = \x y -> case x of
             0 -> g (Just y)
             _ -> f (x+1) y

The allocation in the 0 branch of the case causes a heap check at the beginning of f, and an Hp subtraction before the recursive call to f.

We should only do the heap check once in this case. Either:

  • aggregate the heap check to the caller. Difficult if f is exported.
  • generate a worker/wrapper pair, where the wrapper does the heap check. eg.
 f:  
   Hp += 3;
   if (Hp >= HpLim) { ... }
  L:
   ... recursive call jumps to L ...
  • Generate the above code with a special-case Cmm to Cmm optimisation that spots the heap check.
  • Let some general-purpose heavy-duty loop optimisation transform into the above code (apparently gcc can do this).

Framework for branch prediction

On modern CPUs correctly predicted branches are nearly free while mis-predicted branches incurr quite a high penalty due to pipeline stalls etc.

There are a number of low level things that can be done if we have some idea of the probability of a branch being taken. For example the block corresponding to the branch that is unlikely to be taken can be made the target of the jump so that the fall through branch is the likely one. On some CPUs its possible to add explicit hints to conditional jump instructions. If a branch is comparatively very unlikely then its block can be moved completely out of line. See a CPU architecture/optimisation guide for more suggestions.

GCC has a framework for gathering and using branch prediction information to improve code generation. It can get information from a static analysis and heuristics, from profile feedback and ffrom explicit user annotations via builtin_expect().

So the suggestion is that GHC could have a similar framework including explicit user annotations. It is believed that this could make a significant difference to the speed of some low level code like ByteString?.

See ticket #849 for more details.

Improving and refactoring the native code generator

Allow SSA to be expressed in Cmm

Cmm can almost express SSA, but it lacks phi. Adding phi to Cmm wouldn't be difficult, and then we can express real loops and implement the well-known loop optimisations.

Implement loop optimisations

Add loop optimisations as Cmm to Cmm passes.

Clean up the NCG

The NCG is currently structured as follows: the "instruction selector" (MachCodeGen) takes Cmm and generates [Instr], where Instr is a machine-dependent instruction datatype. Register allocation is then done on [Instr], the register allocator is machine-independent but relies on some machine-dependent functions over Instr.

The problem with this is that we can't express any generic optimisations at the instruction level, and we can't share any code between the instruction selectors. Also, the machine-dependent parts of the register allocator duplicate a lot of code.

A better approach might be for the machine-dependent instruction selector to generate Cmm instead; it would be a stylised form of Cmm in which every statement corresponds to a single instruction in the target assembly language, such that assembly can be generated by pretty-printing this Cmm (call it MD-Cmm) directly.

This might entail encoding some instructions as function calls, or extending the range of MachOps? to accomodate operations supported by some processors. Also, we probably want to abstract Cmm over the register type (MD-Cmm probably has "register classes", to indicate that a particular register must be drawn from a certain subset of machine registers).

Register allocation would be done on MD-Cmm, using information only about the registers and register classes of the target architecture. There would be less machine dependent code here.

All in all, this should result in a reduction in code size of the NCG and improvements in maintainability and portability. Longer-term it will enable us to have MD-Cmm to MD-Cmm passes to do things like instruction scheduling.

(note that the general idea for doing this comes from gcc, we are using MD-Cmm where they use RTL).

There's even a nice migration path here. We don't need to transition every architecture to MD-Cmm right away, we can implement an MD-Cmm route for a single architecture, because the existing register allocator can be made to work over MD-Cmm by providing appropriate bits specific to MD-Cmm, I believe. Roman plans to do this (in his spare time :-) for Sparc.

Aliasing information

We will need at some point access to aliasing information in Cmm, for the Cmm-to-Cmm passes to make use of.

Improving register usage

Re-using fixed registers

The register allocator should treat fixed registers (like the heap pointer) in the same way as other registers: they can be spilled and reloaded. This would let an inner loop that doesn't need access to Hp re-use the register, for example.

Eliminating BaseReg

If the current capability was stored on the C stack, then we wouldn't need a separate BaseReg register, freeing up a register (especially handy on x86). I don't see how to do this if we compile via C, but if we go NCG-only it would be possible.

We could either do this by copying the capability onto the stack before running Haskell code (and be careful that the copy doesn't get out of sync with the real thing), or we could allocate some space below each Capability and point the stack pointer directly at it before entering Haskell.

Last modified 5 years ago Last modified on Mar 13, 2009 10:38:45 AM